PRACA POGLĄDOWA / REVIEW ARTICLE

ZAPOŻYCZENIA LEKSYKALNE Z JĘZYKÓW KLASYCZNYCH W ANGIELSKICH I FRANCUSKICH TERMINACH MEDYCZNYCH: ANALIZA PORÓWNAWCZA

Maryna P. Melaschenko, Olena M. Bieliaieva, Yuliia V. Lysanets

Department of Foreign Languages with Latin and Medical Terminology, Higher state educational establishment,
Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy, Poltava, Ukraine

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The present paper examines the types of terminological borrowings of classical origin in the modern English and French sublanguages of medicine.

The aim: The authors aim to conduct the lexico-semantic analysis of borrowings from classical languages in the medical terminologies of English and French.

Materials and methods: The research is based on the corpus of terminological units from Dictionary of medical terms and Dictionnaire des termes médicaux et biologiques et des médicaments, using structural, typological and comparative methods.

Review: The terminological units under consideration were analyzed and grouped into three major categories: (1) adapted (assimilated) Latin and latinized Greek terms which underwent certain changes in the modern English and French; (2) non-adapted (non-assimilated) words which preserve the original form of classical languages, and (3) “hybrid borrowings” as a special combination of the previous two types. The research has revealed the fact that modern French has assimilated significantly more terms from classical languages, whereas English most commonly preserves their original (non-adapted) form.

Conclusions: Terminological borrowings from classical languages constitute an extensive layer of special vocabulary in both English and French sublanguages of medicine. The group of “hybrid borrowings”, described in this paper, requires further in-depth study and is of particular interest for linguists and specialists in the field of terminology.

Key words:

Wiad Lek 2018, 71, 5, -1083

 

Introduction

Lexical borrowings constitute one of the main sources for the vocabulary replenishment in the national languages, including the English and French sublanguage of medicine. By the term “sublanguage” we refer to a set of verbal and non-verbal means (and their combinations), which is accepted by a group of professionals, and supplies the needs of oral and written communication, focused on the achievement of professionally significant goals and solutions to professional tasks.

Term is the main structural element of any sublanguage (or LSP) [1]. As L.M. Torshina points out, “terms are the only linguistic means that directly reflect the specificity of the scientific knowledge. With the help of terms, a system of concepts is formed, which is typical of a certain sphere of activity” [2, p. 133].

Taking into account the unique role which the Latin language has played for centuries in the medical sphere, there is an extensive layer of terminological borrowings of classical origin in the modern English and French sublanguages of medicine, as in any other national sublanguage of this branch. Despite the fact that linguists [3; 4; 5; 6] have already laid the foundations of the functional stylistics in the nationwide and special vocabulary, the issues of classical borrowings in the sublanguages of medicine remain insufficiently studied, which renders the present paper relevant.

THE Aim

The aim of the research is to analyze the lexical and syntactical borrowings from classical languages in the medical terminologies of English and French. The study of two terminologies belonging to different language families through the lens of classical borrowings will demonstrate the key role of Latin in the development of European languages.

Materials and methods

The material of the study is the corpus of terminology units, presented in the Dictionary of medical terms [7] and Dictionnaire des termes médicaux et biologiques et des médicaments [8].

Review and discussion

Having analyzed the dictionary entries, we came to the conclusion that in addition to the adapted (assimilated) and non-adapted (non-assimilated) terminological borrowings [9], the modern English and French sublanguages of medicine also comprise the third group, which we suggest to refer to as “hybrid borrowings” [10].

The first, the most numerous group of lexical borrowings in English and French is represented by terminological units with assimilated Latin affixes (see Table I). This list is by no means exhaustive, and is only intended to illustrate the major tendencies in both sublanguages under consideration.

The table given above demonstrates the changes which Latin underwent in different European languages, as well as the close relationships between English and French due to lexical borrowings from classical languages. The table also illustrates the fact that modern French has assimilated significantly more affixes from classical languages, whereas English most commonly preserves their original (non-adapted) form.

A special type of borrowings in this group is represented by the “calque” units. The term “calque” was introduced into the linguistic terminology at the beginning of the 20th century by Charles Bally. Calque is defined as “borrowing by means of literal translation (usually in parts: words or morphemes)” [4].

The analysis of the corpus of dictionaries [7; 8], allows us to conclude that calque from classical languages (word-by-word and morpheme-by-morpheme translation) holds a prominent place in both English and French sublanguages of medicine (Table II).

As one can observe from Table II, most of medical calques in English and French are both semantic and syntactic.

The second group of lexical borrowings comprises the non-adapted (non-assimilated) words from classical languages which preserve the original spelling. Such terms are numerous in both English and French: abdomen, acromion, uterus, foetus, pelvis, fascia, larynx, pharynx, coccyx, manubrium, hallux valgus, hallux varus, crista terminalis, placenta accreta and so on. The prevalence of such lexical units in the English and French sublanguages is an indisputable proof of the fact that Latin and latinized Greek terms meet the professional communication needs of various branches of medicine.

Another interesting aspect of non-assimilated terminological borrowings in English is the fact that, as a rule, Latin plural forms are also transferred unchangingly (Table III). This tendency, however, is not observed in French

The third group is represented by the terms which we suggest to refer to as “hybrid borrowings”. The uniqueness of these terminological phrases lies in the fact that one of the components is a non-assimilated Latin (or latinized Greek) word, and another one (others) − is an adapted (less often − original) English or French word(s). Examples of such borrowings are given in Table IV.

Conclusions

Thus, the analysis of lexicographic sources provides the following conclusions: terminological borrowings from classical languages constitute an extensive layer of special vocabulary in both English and French sublanguages of medicine. The terminological units under consideration can be grouped into three major categories: (1) adapted (assimilated) terms which underwent certain changes in the modern English and French; (2) non-adapted (non-assimilated) words which preserve the original form of classical languages, and (3) “hybrid borrowings” as a special combination of the previous two types. The latter group requires further in-depth study and is of particular interest for linguists and specialists in the field of terminology.

REFERENCES

1. Bieliaieva O., Lysanets Yu., Znamenska I. et al. Terminoligical Collocations in Medical Latin and English: a Comparative Study. Wiadomosci Lekarskie. T. LXX. № 1. 2017: 139-143.

2. Torshina L.M. Termin i terminologiya morskogo dela (k probleme izucheniya i obup L.M. Torshina, Yazyk i kul’tura: mater. 6-oy Mezhdunar. nauchi, konf. / Institut mezhpunk rodnykh otnosheniy Kiyevskogo universiteta imeni Tarasa Shevchenko. K.; 1998: 132-139.

3. Capuz J.G. Towards a Typological Classification of Linguistic Borrowing (Illustrated with Anglicisms in Romance Languages). Revista Alicantina de Estudios Ingleses 10; 1997: 81-94.

4. Garnier M., Saint-Dizier P. An Analysis of the Calque Phenomena Based on Comparable Corpora. 2nd Workshop on Building and Using Comparable Corpora: from Parallel to Non-parallel Corpora. Proceedings of the Workshop (6 August 2009). Suntec, Singapore: https://www.irit.fr/~Patrick.Saint-Dizier/publi_fichier/paraPSD.pdf

5. Wach S. Calquing English Terminology into Polish. Academic Journal of Modern Philology. Vol. 2; 2013: 161-169.

6. Zuckermann G, Hybridity versus Revivability: Multiple Causation, Forms and Patterns. Journal of Language Contact. V. 2; 2009: 40-67.

7. Dictionary of Medical Terms (Fourth Edition). London: A&C Black Ltd; 2004: 780.

8. Dictionnaire des termes médicaux et biologiques et des médicaments. Paris: Flammarion Medecine-Science Edition; 2005: 940.

9. Turchin V.V. Pragmatika naukovogo termsha. Ivano-Frankivs’k: Fakel; 2004: 227.

10. Bieliaieva E.N. Leksiko-sintaksicheskiye zaimstvovaniya iz klassicheskikh yazykov v sovremennom frantsuzskom podyazyke meditsiny. Olimpiada po latinskomu yazyku i osnovam meditsinskoy terminologii – vazhnaya sostavlyayushchaya kachestva obrazovaniya v XXI veke. Ul’yanovsk: Izd-vo «Vektor-S», 2010: 208-212.

 

Authors’ contributions:

According to the order of the Authorship.

Conflict of interest:

The Authors declare no conflict of interest.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Yuliia V. Lysanets

Higher state educational establishment,

Ukrainian medical stomatological academy,

23 Shevchenko Str., Poltava 36004, Ukraine

e-mail: julian.rivage@gmail.com

Received: 20.02.2018

Accepted: 01.07.2018

Table І. Assimilated classical affixes in the English and French sublanguages of medicine

Affix

Examples of terminological units

Latin

English

French

Latin

English

French

-a

-a*

-e

ansa

ansa

anse

-ia

-y

-ie

dystrophia

dystrophy

dystrophie

-ismus

-ism

-isme

botulismus

botulism

botulisme

-oma

-oma*

-ome

sarcoma

sarcoma

sarcome

-ema

-ema*

-ème

empyema

empyema

empyème

-osis

-osis*

-ose

dermatomycosis

dermatomycosis

dermatomycose

-iasis

-iasis*

-iase

lithiasis

lithiasis

lithiase

-itis

-itis*

-ite

proctitis

proctitis

proctitite

-ura

-ure

-ure

ruptura

rupture

rupture

-or

-or*

-eur

rotator

rotator

rotateur

-tio

-tion

-tion

inflammatio

inflammation

inflammation

-as

-ity

-ité

graviditas

gravidity

gravidité

-ma

-m

-me

cardiogramma

cardiogram

cardiogramme

-sis

-sis*

-ose

necrosis

necrosis

nécrose

-io

-ion

-ion

solutio

solution

solution

Note: * − denotes the non-assimilated affixes in English.

Table II. Calque from classical languages in the English and French medical terminologies

Latin

English

French

antebrachium

forearm

avan-bras

labium leporinum

hare lip

bec-de-lièvre

dens lacteus

milk tooth

dent de lait

dens sapientiae

wisdom tooth

dent de sagesse

costa vera

true rib

côte vraie

cor bovinum

beef heart

cœur de bœuf

cor pulmonale

pulmonary heart

coeur pulmonaire

fundus oculi

eye ground

fond d’oeil

radix nervi

nerve root

racine nerveuse

saccus lacrimalis

lacrimal sac

sac lacrymal

ulcus rotundum

round ulcer

ulcère rond

collum femoris

femoral neck

col du fémur

commotio cerebri

brain commotion / cerebral commotion 

commotion cérébrale

diplegia facialis congenita

congenital facial diplegia

diplégie faciale congénitale

coma diabeticum

diabetic coma

come diabétique

palatum durum (molle)

hard (soft) palate

palais dur (mou)

Table III. Latin plural endings in the English sublanguage of medicine

Singular

Plural

 

Singular

Plural

atrium

atria

 

bacillus

bacilli

bacterium

bacteria

 

bronchus

bronchi

curriculum

curricula

 

focus

foci

datum

data

 

fungus

fungi

medium

media

 

nucleus

nuclei

ovum

ova

 

stimulus

stimuli

septum

septa

 

syllabus

syllabi

serum

sera

 

vertebra

vertebrae

stratum

strata

 

analysis

analyses

symposium

symposia

 

appendix

appendices

criterion

criteria

 

axis

axes

ganglion

ganglia

 

crisis

crises

phenomenon

phenomena

 

diagnosis

diagnoses

apex

apices

 

paralysis

paralyses

index

indices

 

thesis

theses

Table IV. Hybrid borrowings in the English and French sublanguages of medicine

Latin

English

French

area cribrosa renis

cribriform area of the kidney

area cribrosa de rein

maceratio foetus

maceration of foetus

maceration du foetus

pemphigus chronicus simplex

simple chronic pemphigus

pemphigus chronique simple

nystagmus vestibularis

vestibular nystagmus

nystagmus vestibulaire

fovea centralis maculae

central fovea of macula

fovea centralis de la macula

lemniscus lateralis

lateral lemniscus

lemniscus latéral

placenta accessoria

accessory placenta

placenta accessoire

tabes dorsalis

dorsal tabes

tabes dorsal

plexus brachialis

brachial plexus

plexus brachial

anus praetrnaturalis

preternatural anus

anus contre-nature

area cribrosa

papillae renis

cribriform area

of the renal papilla

area cribrosa

de la papille du rein

prurigo Hebrae

Hebra’s prurigo

prurigo de Hebra

purpura thrombocytopenica

thrombopenic purpura /

thrombocytopenic purpura / thrombocytopaenic purpura

purpura thrombocytopénique