Analiza wiedzy studentów uczelni wyższych w Połtawie na temat szkodliwości stosowania narkotyków
Iryna A. Holovanova1, Vladyslav A. Smiianov2, Tatyana V. Pluzhnikovа1, Volodymyr I. Potseluiev2, Olena V. Filatova1
1Higher State Educational Establishment of Ukraine, Ukrainian Medical Stomatological Academy, Poltava, Ukraine
2Sumy State University, Sumy, Ukraine
Introduction: The urgency of the topic is due to the fact that in recent years in Ukraine a part of youth who use narcotic drugs and psychoactive substances is growing. Today there are more than a quarter of billion drug addicts in the world. This number includes those who have tried drugs at least once. Among them – about 27 million drug addicts that are in need of treatment.
The aim: to analyze the knowledge of the students of higher educational institutions of Poltava about various issues related to drug addiction.
Materials and methods: 600 questionnaires of students who study at the universities (Poltava). The following methods were used: historical – analytical and bibliosemantic, medico-statistical, sociological, system approach and system analysis.
Results: Student youth responded to various questions that were presented in the questionnaire, about various issues related to drug addiction. 26 % of respondents indicated that they know places where drugs can be purchased. To the question «Do you know what drugs are?» оnly 7 % answered «No». 2, 5 % of those surveyed met with drug users on the street. 13 ± 1, 51 % (р<0, 05) of the respondents admitted that they were irritated when they were criticized for using narcotic drugs and only 9 ± 1, 25 % (р<0, 05) felt guilty about abuse.
Сonclusions: Students should be aware of the problem of the use of psychoactive substances, be aware of the legislative framework for the prevention of consumption, turnover and any manipulations with psychoactive substances.
Wiad Lek 2018, 71, 7, -1297
Drugs have been known to people for several thousand years . They were consumed by people of different cultures, for various purposes: during religious ceremonies, for restoration of forces, changes in consciousness, pain relief and unpleasant sensations. The history of human consumption of various narcotic substances count more than one millennium .
The urgency of the topic is due to the fact that in recent years in Ukraine a part of youth who use narcotic drugs and psychoactive substances is growing [3, 4, 5]. Today there are more than a quarter of billion drug addicts in the world. This number includes those who have tried drugs at least once. Among them – about 27 million drug addicts that are in need of treatment. Annually, as a result of overdose and other causes related to drug use, 200 thousand people die. The international drug control system is built on three conventions – the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (1961), the Convention on Psychotropic Substances (1971) and the United Nations Convention against Illegal Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances (1988). At the 30th special session of the UN General Assembly it was adopted a final document, which outlines measures to assist drug addicts and to reduce supply and demand for drugs .
The narcotic situation in Ukraine shows an increase in the consumption of narcotic drugs, «rejuvenation» of patients with various disorders as a result of the use of narcotic substances [7, 8]. In recent decades, the problem of addictive behavior of young people associated with the use of various psychoactive substances has become particularly acute, reaching the stage of mental and physical dependence on them . One of the main reasons for the use of psychoactive substances by young people is the lack of knowledge on this issue .
Drug addiction is one of the causes of juvenile crimes. Abuse of psychoactive substances is an international problem, which affects almost every country on the globe. Today specialists of a number of sciences and social practices have joined the research of the problem of preventing and overcoming the use of psychoactive substances [3, 4].
Prevention of addiction to drug dependence of youth in Ukraine occurs on a voluntary basis. However, studies show that prevention of dependence at the non-professional level does not give the desired results, and sometimes leads to a negative effect .
The counteraction of the epidemic of dependence on psychoactive substances should begin with the elucidation of the causes of this phenomenon and the solution of urgent tasks for the prevention of all kinds of dependence. The main reasons that do not allow to fully solve the problem of overcoming drug addiction include the lack of a system of interaction between organizations and departments, specialized primary prevention services and medical and social rehabilitation of patients with a narcological profile, a shortage of specialists in prevention and rehabilitation (health workers, teachers, psychologists, social workers), lack of material and technical support of anti-drug education, diagnostic, treatment and rehabilitation . Based on the results of the questionnaire survey, more than two thousand schoolchildren identified factors that affect the use of drugs, including, living in incomplete and dysfunctional families, improper organization of leisure, smoking, alcohol using, including beer-related advertising, in which its use is presented as a necessary element of communication in the youth environment. The use of questionnaires makes it possible to propose new programs for the prevention of dependence . It should be noted that questioning is a particularly effective method for further development of drug dependence prevention and is recommended for practicing in higher educational institutions [3, 11].
The practical importance of the study is determined by the fact that the data obtained during the work can be the basis for further study of addictive behavior and the results of primary prevention may be proved useful [13, 14, 15].
For many years, the attention of researchers has been pointed at medical preventive measures (secondary prevention), but in recent years, primary prevention is one of the priority areas for counteracting the spread of psychoactive substances among young people. Complex system of prevention (psychological, educational, medical, social and preventive) allows to influence the personality of minors with minimal involvement of additional funds, contributes to optimal prevention of addictive behavior.
The aim was to analyze the knowledge of the students of higher educational institutions of Poltava about various issues related to drug addiction.
Materials and methods
The realization of the goal required the use of a set of interrelated and complementary general scientific and special medical and social research methods aimed at obtaining objective and reliable results based on a systematic approach. In the study directly and in various combinations, the following methods of scientific were used:
1. Historical – analytical and bibliosemantic – to analyze the data of scientific literature, as well as to study the domestic and world experience on the problem of the study.
2. Medico-statistical – for the collection, processing and analysis of research materials (methods of descriptive and analytical statistics for determining relative indicators), a study of the prevalence of drug addiction among young people in Poltava.
3. Sociological – to study the awareness of youth in higher education institutions on drug use through questionnaires.
4. System approach and system analysis – at all stages of work to form and solve the research problem.
Results and discussion
600 questionnaires of students who study at the universities of the city of Poltava, Ukraine and 250 men and 350 women of them. The age of the respondents was 20-22 years old.
Student youth responded to various questions that were presented in the questionnaire, about various issues related to drug addiction. To the question «Do you know what drugs are?» оnly 7 % answered «No». Of these: 28 ± 1, 96 % (р<0,05) learned about drugs from video films 20 ± 1, 52 % (р<0,05) from friends, 19 ± 1, 5 % (р<0,05) – learned from newspapers and magazines, 18 ± 1, 72 % (р<0,05) – heard about drugs from parents and 12, 5 ± 1, 45 % (р<0,05) read about drugs in special literature. Оnly 2, 5 % of those surveyed met with drug users on the street.
Of all respondents, 26 % of respondents indicated that they know places where drugs can be purchased (17 % know many places where they can buy or get drugs, 9 % know only one place) and 74 % do not know such places at all.
Unfortunately, 10 % of students do not consider drugs a problem for young people. Also, 18 % of the respondents admitted that they had previously tried drugs, 58 % of them last tried drugs more than a year ago, 15 % – during the year, and 8 ± 1, 22 % (р<0,05) admitted that they had tried drugs for the last time a few days ago. Only 13 ± 1, 51 % (р<0, 05) of the respondents admitted that they were irritated when they were criticized for using narcotic drugs. Оnly 9 ± 1, 25 % (р<0, 05) felt guilty about abuse.
Of all the respondents, 22 ± 1, 83 % (р<0, 05) of students noted that, in their opinion, the desire to take narcotic measures arises “by stupidity”, 17 ± 1, 66 % noted that this desire can arise for those who want to relax, and 11 ± 1, 38 % (р<0, 05) believe that this allows you to get rid of various undesirable problems. Other respondents noted that the desire to take drugs can arise when a person does not have a sense of life or from loneliness (8 % each), from boredom (7 %), from interest and because it is prestigious – by 6 %.
To the question «What motivates a person to try drugs ?» 15 % believe that this desire to experience extraordinary feelings, 14 % believe that this is the influence of friends, 13 % believe that this is a person’s desire to get rid of unpleasant thoughts and feelings, and 12 % they think that everything should be tried in life. Other respondents noted that they encourage people to try drugs different reasons, such as: the desire for satisfaction (11 %), the desire to improve their mood, for it is prestigious, for evil to all, the need to raise the tone in the morning and only 8 ± 1, 2 % (р<0, 05) consider that light drugs can not seriously harm.
It is necessary to facilitate the formation of clear drug offenders for students, detect consumers of psychoactive substances and provide them with comprehensive assistance, to create an atmosphere in the higher educational establishments that excludes the use of drugs.
It is necessary active to dissemination of information about the causes, forms and effects of abuse, the formation of adolescent analysis and criticality, the formation of personal responsibility for their own actions, which will reduce the demand for psychoactive substances among young people.
Students should be aware of the problem of the use of psychoactive substances, be aware of the legislative framework for the prevention of consumption, turnover and any manipulations with psychoactive substances. It is worth emphasizing that if there is a dependency or, if it is necessary to clarify a number of questions on the prevention of the formation of dependence, it should be timely to turn to professionals – psychologists or consultants on the issues of chemical dependence. It is important to inform the participants that the use of narcotic substances entails the destruction of all spheres and aspects of life.
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According to the order of the Authorship.
Conflict of interest:
The Authors declare no conflict of interest.
Higher state educational establishment,
Ukrainian medical stomatological academy,
23 Shevchenko Str., Poltava 36004, Ukraine