PRACA ORYGINALNA

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF MOTIVATIONAL SPHERE OF DRUG ADDICTS

CECHY PSYCHOLOGICZNE SFERY MOTYWACYJNEJ UZALEŻNIENIA OD NARKOTYKÓW

Ulyana В. Mykhaylyshyn

Department of Psychology, State University «Uzhhorod National University», Uzhhorod, Ukraine

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The article considers the psychological features of motivational sphere of drug addicts. The article presents the results of the empirical study of the specifics of motivational sphere of drug addicts with the subsequent statistical analysis.

The aim of this study is to identify psychological characteristics of motivational sphere of drug addicts.

Materials and methods: The research has been conducted at Transcarpathian Oblast Narcological Dispensary (Uzhhorod, Ukraine). The experiment involved 30 drug addicts of different age and sexes. In order to diagnose the motivational sphere of drug addicts, the following methods have been used: Diagnostics of motivation to avoid failure by T. Ehlers; Measuring the motivation to success by T. Ehlers; Diagnostics of risk attitude by G. Schubert.

Results: It has been found that the determining factors of motivation for drug abuse are: social and psychological conditions of life, factors of group influence, direct psycho-physiological influence of drugs, daring illusory satisfaction. It has been determined that young people with unstable spiritual needs and lack of stable positive interests are the category who is the most inclined to drug abuse.

Conclusions: The data of statistical, quantitative and qualitative analysis has been obtained allowing concluding that the development of destructive motivation affects the inclination to using the narcotic substances.

Key words: motivational sphere, drug addiction, psychoactive substances, addictive behaviour, motivation for success, predisposition to risk, motivation of affiliation, drug abuse, motivation of behaviour

Wiad Lek 2019, 72, 2, 159-164

INTRODUCTION

The complicated social and economic situation, which is observed in Ukraine, preconditions the negative tendencies, the growth of drug abuse cases including, which deforms the human motivational sphere. The spread of such dangerous phenomena among the young people poses a threat to the health of the nation. In this regard, the implementation of measures aimed at preventing the further growth of drug addiction, as well as the development of effective strategies to overcome addictions is extremely relevant.

Often, the help to patients with drug addiction is limited to detoxification and relief from the state of physical dependence. With this approach, specialists do not pay enough attention to the fact that the main causes of drug abuse are of psychological character, and the formation of dependence is accompanied in a patient with the emergence of strong mental trauma, which deforms the motivational sphere, changes other substructures of an individual, adversely affects all spheres of his/her mental life.

That is why the motivational sphere of drug addicts is relevant for the research.

Analysis of recent researches and publications

Despite long history of researching the drug addicts personality, the motivation and psychological readiness to drugs abuse, sex-age characteristics of drug addicts, it is necessary to note the study of causes, that contribute to the formation of purpose of drug abuse, and the study of motivational sphere of drug addicts is insufficient [1, p. 80].

Among the numerous studies devoted to the motivation of drug abuse, we note the study of T. I. Petrakov and team, which emphasizes that psychological readiness for the use of psychoactive substances is determined by personal beliefs, pressure of groups and authority, conformism, demonstrative protest against the opinions of the others, the desire for self-affirmation, removing of emotional stress [2, p. 45].

P. D. Shabanov, author of the manual on narcology, points out that imitation is the motive for the first use of narcotic substances, as well as the desire to look like adults, to be independent in decision-making. However, it is not so easy to determine what motives and risk factors are the key once to shape the need for use of narcotic drugs. The unconscious about its harm is considered to be an important factor that determines the first time drugs using [3, p. 98].

According to the study of A. Y. Taras, «youth with unstable spiritual needs and the lack of stable positive interests is the most inclined to drug abuse» [4, p. 56].

N. G. Naydonova et al. also considers the combination of a number of features of personality as psychological factors in the formation of models of drug-addictive behaviour [5, p. 170]. They include: the lack of formation of higher emotions, limited interest, the lack of purpose for work and other socially useful activities, low internal control, the desire to artificially change own condition caused by mental imbalance, a sense of inner tension, pathological aspirations for self-affirmation or hedonistic tendencies, emotional-volitional imbalance, violation of psychological adaptive mechanisms, motivational sphere and other substructures..

In the foreign literature, the so-called confrontation of generations is often mentioned as the dominant motive for addictive behaviour in young people − a protest against the spiritual values of parents and society as a whole. From the neo-Freudian point of view, the predominant nowadays consumption culture, the desire to consume happiness as a commodity are the main motives of addictive behaviour. A certain role in the spread of drugs is played by myths in relation to their effects that are spreading in a society [2, p. 67].

When psychic dependence is formed, the main motivation is the desire − the need to somehow change the mental state. And with physical dependence − the main motive for drug abuse is the fear of abstinence [6, p. 350].

Consequently, the study of motivational sphere includes a number of social and psychological factors that influence the personality and the formation of this dependence.

THE AIM

The purpose of this study is to identify psychological characteristics of motivational sphere of drug addicts.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The research has been conducted at Transcarpathian Oblast Narcological Dispensary (Uzhhorod, Ukraine). The experiment involved 30 drug addicts of different age and sexes. In order to diagnose the motivational sphere of drug addicts, the following methods have been used:

1. Diagnostics of motivation to avoid failure by T. Ehlers.

2. Measuring the motivation to success by T. Ehlers.

3. Diagnostics of risk attitude by G. Schubert.

This psychodiagnostic set of techniques makes it possible to identify, describe and reliably assess the psychological peculiarities of respondents. The complex is an adequate tool for researching the motivational sphere of drug addicts.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Having applied the method of T. Ehlers on diagnostics of motivation to avoid failure, the following results are obtained: 6 respondents (20%) have a high level of motivation to avoid failures; 16 respondents (53%) − average; 8 respondents (27%) − low level (Figure 1).

Motivation to avoid failure involves the following specificity of human behaviour: passivity, fear of mistakes and failure, avoidance of responsible decisions, fear of risk. Motivation to avoid failure belongs to the negative sphere. With this type of motivation, a person seeks to avoid condemnation and punishment first and foremost. Expectation of unpleasant consequences determines the activity.

The distribution of rates of failure avoiding is as following:

− low level of motivation to avoid failure − 8 respondents;

− average level of motivation to avoid failure − 16 respondents;

− high level of motivation to avoid failure − 6 respondents.

Indicators for each member of the sample are presented graphically (Figure 2).

The minimum indicator of motivation to avoid failure is 2 points, and the maximum is 22 points

The domination of average level of failure avoiding indicates the tendency to change the motivation to avoid failure into the motivation to success.

Low level of failure avoiding indicates the orientation on success and readiness to overcome problems that arise on the way of its achievement.

People with high level of protection, that is, with fear of accidents, are more likely to find themselves in such troubles than those, who possess high level of motivation to success.

Having applied the method of T. Ehlers on measuring the motivation to success, the following results are obtained: 5 (17%) respondents possess high level of motivation to success, 13 (43%) − average level, 11 (37%) − low level, 1 (3%) very high level (Figure 3).

Motivation to success is the strategy of human behaviour, when an individual is focused on activity, result achievement, is not afraid of mistakes, takes different actions, andis capable to risk.

High level of motivation to success is characterised by a deep awareness of dependence of own professional success on self-cognition, self-control and self-improvement. Needs associated with personal growth are clearly identified: to master the level of skill and competence, to provide material comfort for oneself, to develop own strengths and abilitie. These individuals are characterised by the power of will, self-control and responsibility for own actions, which inevitably increases their success in solving of cognitive and professional tasks.

The average level of motivation to success is characterised by the sufficient formation of all components of motivation. Individuals of this type are usually active, initiative. They consciously seek to master knowledge and skills, are able to work organised and make efforts to achieve the desired result.

Low level of motivation for success is characterised by the fact that personal professional qualities are weak and they cannot always be detected, most likely, the motive is characterised through the awareness of «it is needed». It is usually associated with the outer side of the process, focused on formal success, achievement of an estimated result.

Motivation to success has a positive character. With this motivation, human actions are aimed at achieving constructive, positive results. People motivated by success, set the main positive goal, the achievement of which is regarded as success. They are characterised by expectation of success, they are confident in it. Their work causes positive emotions.

We have carried out a mathematical and statistical analysis of the techniques by T. Ehlers on avoiding failure and achieving success.

In the process of research, we have used the parametric criterion − t criterion of Student.

Sequence of analysis:

1. We issue the null and the alternative hypothesis:

H0: The average value of indicator of motivation to avoid failure is not significantly different from the average value of indicator motivation to success.

H1: The average value of indicator of motivation to avoid failure differs from the average value of indicator of motivation to success.

2. Checking of assumptions: the distribution of the studied parameters is normal, linked sampling, the scopes of samples are the same.

3. Calculation of the empirical value of t-emp is provided .

4. Critical value of tcr is indicated .

5. Decision making: since t-emp tcr, that is, 0.43 < 2.00. The null hypothesis is accepted at the level of significance 0.05. We build the axis of significance (Figure 5).

Consequently, at the level of significance of 0.05 there is no reason to assert that the average value of the indicators is not significantly different. Therefore, the method of motivation to avoid failure by T. Ehlers does not differ in its indicators from the values of method of motivation to success by T. Ehlers. Therefore, the H0 hypothesis is accepted, and H1is rejected.

Mathematical analysis of the research has confirmed that in the given techniques by T. Ehlers, the average indicator of motivation to avoid failure (53%) and the average value of motivation to success (43%) predominate.

To fix the general indicators, we analyse graphic presentations of motivation to success and motivation to avoid failure (Figure 6).

Thus, with the help of correlation of techniques by T. Ehlers on motivation to avoid failure and motivation to success, one can see the dominance of the average tendencies in two techniques.

Having applied the method of diagnostics of risk attitude by G. Schubert, the following results are obtained: 22 (73%) of drug addicts show average readiness for risk, 8 (27%) − high level, low level has not been detected ( Figure 7).

The study on the given method has demonstrated that average level of predisposition to risk has been found in 22 respondents. This suggests that the respondents in this study are inclined to risk only when it is strictly necessary. High level of predisposition to risk has been found in 8 respondents, which means the presence of risk in different situations, regardless of significance. Low level of predisposition to risk has not been detected.

For statistical calculation of technique on diagnostics of risk attitude by G. Schubert, we have used the method of testing the hypotheses on numerical values of parameters by comparing the dispersion of F-criterion (Fisher’s criterion), where statistics have the form [6, p.210]:

Femp = S12 / S22 ,

Where S12 andS22are dispersions

Sequence of analysis:

1. We issue the null and the alternative hypothesis:

H0: the dispersions do not differ from each other;

H1: the dispersions differ from each other.

2. Checking of assumptions: the distribution of the studied parameters is normal, linked sampling, the measurements are made on interval scale.

3. Selecting the statistical criterion. The situation corresponds to the model of two-sided F-criterion (Fisher’s criterion): Femp = S12 / S22 .

4. The results of calculating the F-emp.The sample dispersions S12 = 66.26, S22 = 31.69. Hence the value of the empirical criterion is 66.26 / 31.69 = 2.09.

5. Defining of critical value of criterion F. For two-sided model at the level of significance a, two critical values Fcr for points (a/2) and (1- a/2) of F-distribution with the number of degrees of freedomdf1 and df2 are set.

For a = 0.05 we get F0,025=2.98 and F0,975=0.34; for a = 0.01 the critical values are F0,005 =4.30 and F0,995 =0.23.

6. Decision making. Since the value Femp=2.09 is not in any critical zone (0.34 <2.09 <2.98), the null hypothesis H0 is accepted.

Even at the significance level of 0.05 there is no reason to assert that dispersion values differ from one another. Thus, according to statistical calculations, the predisposition to risk does not differ.

CONCLUSIONS

Theoretical and methodological analysis of approaches to the study of psychological features of motivational sphere of drug addicts has shown that when using narcotic substance, the motivational sphere of an individual is deformed, all substructures of an individual change, that is, narcotic dependence leads to a number of psychological and personality changes of an individual, gradually destroying the motivational sphere of an individual and personality in general.

The data of statistical, quantitative and qualitative analysis has been obtained allowing concluding that the development of destructive motivation affects the inclination to using the narcotic substances.

Prospective directions of further scientific researches may be the issues of deepening of theoretical and experimental data on the issue under consideration. The development of corrective programme aimed at overcoming of pathological motivation towards the use of psychoactive substances, improving the motivational sphere of drug addicts is urgent.

References

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2.  Blagov, L. N. (1994). Affektivnyy erasstroystva pri opiynoy narkomanii [Affective disorders in opiate addiction] (Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation). Ministry of Health. Russian State Scientific centre on Narcology, Moscow.

3.  Rean, A.A. (2001). Praktychna psykhodiahnostyka osobystosti [Practical Psychodiagnostics of Personality]. St.Petersburg.

4.  Fromm, E. (2006). Anatomiya lyudskoyi destruktyvnosti [Anatomy of Human Destruction]. Moscow: AST.

5.  Horban, A.Ye.,Milyutina, O.L., Kovtun, T.V., &Voronovska, V.I. (1998). Novyy kompleksny ymetod terapiyi khvorykh opiynoyi narkomaniyeyu [A new comprehensive method of treatment for patients with opioid addiction]. Moscow.

6.  Kochunas, R. (2005). Psykholohichne konsultuvannya. Hrupova psykhoterapiya [Psychological counseling. Group psychotherapy]. Moscow: Akademichnyy proekt; Haudeamus.

Conflict of interest:

The Author declare no conflict of interest.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Ulyana В. Mykhaylyshyn

Department of Psychology,

State University «Uzhhorod National University»,

14 Universytetska St., 88000 Uzhhorod, Ukraine

tel: +380506991399

e-mail: myb69@ukr.net

Received: 01.12.2018

Accepted: 31.01.2019

Figure 1. Graphic presentation of the research results based on the method of T. Ehlers on diagnostics of motivation to avoid failure

Figure 3. Graphic presentation of the research results on the method of T. Ehlers on measuring the motivation to success

Figure 4. Motivation to success by T. Ehlers

Figure 5. Axis of significance