PRACA ORYGINALNA

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

SOCIAL- PSYCHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF VALUE ORIENTATIONS OF PATIENTS WITH ALCOHOL DEPENDENCE

Ulyana В. Mykhaylyshyn

Uzhhorod National University, Uzhhorod, Ukraine

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The article considers social-psychological features of value orientations of patients with alcohol dependence. The state of the problem under consideration in the psychological literature has been studied.

The analysis of empirical research of value orientations of patients with alcohol dependence has been conducted.

The aim: The aim of the paper is to identify social-psychological features of value orientations of patients with al cohol dependence.

Materials and methods: The research has been conducted at full-time treatment department of Transcarpathian Oblast Narcological Dispensary (Uzhhorod, Ukraine).

The experiment involved 42 respondents (29 men and 13 women) of different age, the department patients, suffering on alcoholism. The techniques have been performed individually with each patient.

The following methods have been used:

1. Method of «Valuable Orientation» by M. Rokich.

2. Questionnaire on Terminal Values (QTV) by I.G.Senin.

3. Purpose-life orientation test (method of PLO) by D.A. Leontiev.

Results: It has been found out that the group hierarchy of values in cases with chronic alcoholism is characterised by an explicit orientation to specific vital values. There is a characteristic reverse development of the value sphere of an individual in cases with chronic alcoholism, which is displayed in the formation of orientations on the lower levels of the value system.

The results of empirical research have shown that among the patients with alcohol dependence the preference is given to terminal values, values – goals.

Conclusions: It has been generalised that value orientations are the component of the structure of an individual, which reflects the life experience gained by an individual in the individual development, and represents the core of consciousness, taking into account how personality makes decisions on important vital issues.

KEY WORDS: alcoholism, value orientations, terminal values, instrumental values, personality structure

Wiad Lek 2019, 72, 4, 579-583

INTRODUCTION

The problem of alcoholism is a danger not only for an individual, but also for the health of the nation as a whole, contributing to the increase in crime, the deterioration of physical and mental health of the population.

Nowadays, the number of patients with alcohol dependence increases, but there are no systematic studies of social-psychological aspects of lifestyle of patients with alcohol dependence, which represent a specific, large social group, characterised by a special system of values, and relationships.

Dependence of personality on psychoactive substances cannot but influence his/her value orientation, motivational structure, communication, system of relations with others, position, status in large and small social groups and other social-psychological characteristics that determine the lifestyle of an individual in a society.

The topic of value orientations for persons suffering from alcoholism is not sufficiently studied and described in scientific literature. Psychology is far behind the needs of practice, both in the study of social-psychological problems of alcoholism, and in the development of the most effective prophylactic and rehabilitation programmes for patients with alcohol dependence.

ANALYSIS OF RECENT RESEARCHES AND PUBLICATIONS ON THE PROBLEM UNDER CONSIDERATION

Values in psychology have been studied by B.G. Ananiev, M.Ya. Boryshevskyy, Z.S. Karpenko, S.L. Rubinstein, V.O. Yadov, T.S. Yatsenko. In particular, B.G. Ananiev, S.L. Rubinstein, M. Rokich point out that the mastery of the system of values is closely linked with the direction of activity of an individual. Researchers point out that values, being central personal entities, express the conscious attitude of an individual towards social reality. And through this quality they determine the broad motivation of behaviour and affect all aspects of activity. In this regard, S.L.Rubinstein notes that social scale of values is displayed in the human activity to meet the immediate social needs. In satisfaction of personal and individual needs through the socially useful activity, the attitude of an individual towards society and, accordingly, to oneself as a part of society is realised [1, p. 615].

M. Rokich considers values as abstract ideas, positive or negative, not related to a particular object or situation, which express human beliefs about types of behaviour and actual goals and do not have an independent motive force. According to his studies, values are divided into two groups: terminal (define long-term prospects of life and established norms of behaviour based on socially defined standards) and instrumental (characterising means of realisation and achievement of terminal values) [2, p. 543].

In some studies the concept of «value orientations» is essentially identical to the terms describing the motivational-needy or sense field [3, p. 28]. For example, A. Maslow actually does not share the concept of «values», «needs» and «motives». In A. Maslow’s theory groups of values constitute a vertical hierarchy. According to him, the needs and values «are not the dichotomy, but a coherent hierarchy, that is, they depend on each other2 [4, p.301]. Maslow distinguishes two main groups of values: (i) B-values (values of being) − higher values, inherent in people who are inclined to self-actualisation (truth, goodness, beauty, integrity, overcoming the dichotomy, vitality, uniqueness, perfection, completeness, fairness, order, simplicity, ease, without effort, etc.); (ii) D-values (deficient values) − lower values, directed to meet specific frustrated needs (peace, rest, sleep, rest, reliance, security, etc.).

«D-values», occupying the subordinate position, are chosen by people «for the sake of survival», the achievement of the state of homeostasis. Their implementation is «an absolute necessity» and a prerequisite «feeling and functioning» of higher «B-values» or «values of development» [2, p.303].

D.A. Leontiev is one of the representatives of domestic psychology in the study of value orientations. He notes that the individual hierarchy of value orientation, as a rule, is a sequence of rather well-delineated «blocks». T.O. Leontiev provides possible grouping of values, united into blocks for various reasons, which are a kind of polar value systems. [5, p.17].

The problem of values is central in the studies by T.S. Yatsenko − Academician of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine The author argues that perceived and proclaimed values cannot fully determine human behaviour in society. At the same time, the scientist focuses on identifying of discrepancies between what a person deliberately declares and the results of actions performed contrary to the declared goals and values [6, p.57].

Thus, value orientations represent special psychological formations and are the elements of the structure of an individual.

With regard to studies of value orientations in patients with alcohol dependence, one can conclude that, nowadays, this topic is not sufficiently studied and described in the scientific literature. Domestic scientists − V.A. Khaschenko, N.I. Lapin, L.N. Sobchyk, M.S. Yanytsky, V.A. Zhmurov, N.A. Zhuravleva − work out problem.

B.S. Bratus points to the «reduction» of motivational and semantic sphere of «alcoholic personality». According to him, patients with alcoholism «… can realise the incompatibility of their behaviour with the former semantic attitudes and values. But unfortunately, this awareness is rarely complete, it remains only as «understanding», which can lead to temporary repentance, but is deprived of real active force. B.S. Bratus explains this by the gradual destruction of the former motivational-semantic hierarchy and the formation of a new one. Group hierarchy of values in chronic alcoholism is characterised by explicit orientation to specific vital values. Analysis of representations about the implementation of certain vital values indicates the uncriticality of their self-perception and anosognosy, as the respondents tend to consider themselves healthy, free in choosing a life strategy, responsible, honest, sensitive, neat and tidy, etc.

Thus, we can speak of characteristic reverse development of the value sphere of personality in chronic alcoholism, which is displayed in the formation of orientations on the lower levels of the value system [7, p.247].

THE AIM

The aim of the paper is to identify social-psychological features of value orientations of patients with alcohol dependence.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

The research has been conducted at full-time treatment department of Transcarpathian Oblast Narcological Dispensary (Uzhhorod, Ukraine).

The experiment involved 42 respondents (29 men and 13 women) of different age, the department patients, suffering on alcoholism. The techniques have been performed individually with each patient.

The following methods have been used:

1. Method of «Valuable Orientation» by M. Rokich.

2. Questionnaire on Terminal Values (QTV) by I.G.Senin.

3. Purpose-life orientation test (method of PLO) by D.A. Leontiev.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Having applied the method of «Valuable Orientation» by M. Rokich, the following results are obtained (Figure 1, Figure 2):

− among the terminal values occupy: the first place − health (11 respondents, 26%); the second − love (10 respondents, 24%); the third − happy family life (8 respondents, 19%); the fourth − life wisdom and having good and faithful friends (3 respondents, 7%).

− among the instrumental values occupy: the first place − independence and honesty (8 respondents, 19%), the second − upbringing (7 respondents, 17%), the third − responsibility and effectiveness in deeds (3 respondents, 7%).

Having applied the Questionnaire on Terminal Values (QTV) by I.G.Senin, according to the key of the technique, the following results are obtained.

In the first place indicators beyond the range of 4 to 7 stens are interpreted, because all the indicators in this range can be considered close to the average.

In our case, out of bounds are the indicators of terminal values, such as creativity and self development (see Figure 4), as well as the indicators of life spheres − the sphere of professional life and the sphere of education and training (see Figure 3). In this case, the indicators are below the norm.

According to the key, the low score on the scale of creativity reflects the lack of a person’s desire to realise own creative potential, to make various changes in all spheres of life. Respondents with low points for this indicator do not avoid stereotypes. Such people usually prefer the measured pace of their lives. In the field of professional life this is displayed in the fact that the respondents prefer the usual ways of work organising and methods of its conducting, they are not characterised by the desire to make various changes and improvements in the work. In the field of education and training the lack of interest in the learning process and gaining of new information is observed.

Low points on the scale of «self-development» − is the lack of interest of a person in objective information about the peculiarities of his/her character, abilities, and other characteristics of personality. Such people, as a rule, do not seek self-improvement, thinking that potential human capabilities are limited. In the field of professional life this is expressed in the absence of desire to realise own abilities and to increase own professional qualifications. In the field of education and training this is expresses in the lack of human desire to master the level of education in order to develop own abilities.

Among the terminal values the result on the scale of:

− «own prestige»: below the norm − 7 respondents (17%), within the norm − 32 respondents (76%), above the norm − 3 respondents 7%;

− «high financial position»: below the norm − 1 respondent (2%), within the norm − 40 respondents (96%), above the norm − 1 respondent (2%);

− «creativity»: below the norm − 34 respondents (81%), within the norm − 8 respondents (19%);

− «active social contacts»: below the norm − 5 respondents (12%), within the norm − 37 respondents (88%);

− «self-development»: below the norm − 20 respondents (48%, within the norm − 22 respondents (52%);

− «achievement»: below the norm − 8 respondents (19%), within the norm − 27 respondents (64%), above the norm − 7 respondents (17%);

− «spiritual satisfaction»: below the norm − 15 respondents (36%), within the norm − 22 respondents (52%), above the norm − 5 respondents (12%);

− «preserving own individuality»: below the norm − 13 respondents (31%), within the norm − 28 respondents (67%), above the norm − 1 respondent (2%).

Among the life values the result on the scale of:

− «professional life»: below the norm − 32 respondents
(77%), within the norm − 10 respondents (23%);

− «education and training»: below the norm − 32 respondents (77%), within the norm − 10 respondents (23%);

− «family life»: below the norm − 21 respondents (50%), within the norm − 13 respondents (31%), above the norm − 8 respondents (19%);

− «social life»: within the norm − 37 respondents (88%), above the norm − 5 respondents (12%);

− «interests»: within the norm − 35 respondents (83%), above the norm − 7 respondents (17%).

Having applied the Purpose-life orientation test (method of PLO) by D.A. Leontiev, the following results are obtained (Figure 5):

(i) average values of formation of purpose-life orientations of patients with alcohol dependence in comparison with average values after the test by D.A. Leontiev are within the norm; (ii) the result on the subscale of:

− «Goals in life»: below the norm − 16 respondents (38%), within the norm – 24 respondents (57%), above the norm − 2 respondents (5%);

− «Process of life»: below the norm − 21 respondent (50%), within the norm − 13 respondents (31%), above the norm − 8 respondents (19%);

− «Effectiveness of life»: below the norm − 23 respondents (55%), within the norm − 17 respondents (40%), above the norm − 2 respondents (5%);

− «Locus control-I»: below the norm − 15 respondents (36%), within the norm − 22 respondents (52%), above the norm − 5 respondents (12%);

− «Locus control-Life»: below the norm − 27 respondents (65%), within the norm − 14 respondents (33%), above the norm − 1 respondent (2%);

− «Overall indicator of life consciousness»: below the norm − 23 respondents (55%), within the norm − 17 respondents (40%), above the norm − 2 respondents (5%).

CONCLUSIONS

Theoretical and methodological analysis of approaches to the study of social-psychological features of value orientations in patients with alcohol dependence has shown that alcoholism is a chronic disease characterised by passion for alcohol, loss of control over its use and distortion of thinking.

It has been found out that the group hierarchy of values in cases with chronic alcoholism is characterised by an explicit orientation to specific vital values. There is a characteristic reverse development of the value sphere of an individual in cases with chronic alcoholism, which is displayed in the formation of orientations on the lower levels of the value system.

The results of empirical research have shown that among the patients with alcohol dependence the preference is given to terminal values, values − goals. This can be explained by the fact that these are the terminal values − the goals of the existence of an individual, his/her convictions − which relate to the goals or end states an individual seeks. In terms of the issues addressed in this article, the problem of social-psychological features of value orientations of patients with alcohol dependence is not definitely studied. Prospecting areas for the further research are: the deepening of theoretical and experimental data on the topic under consideration, namely, the statistical analysis of the data obtained in order to identify the features; the development of a corrective programme aimed at acquiring skills for correcting personal deficiencies, developing ideas about own values, reducing the level of aggressiveness, increasing the self-esteem, developing of communicative culture, forming of motivation for self-education of patients with alcohol dependence.

References

1. Rubinshteyn, S.L. (1999). Osnovy obshchey psykholohyy [Fundamentals of general psychology]. SPb.: Pyter Kom.

2. Yadov, V.A. (2000). Stratehyya sotsyalnoho yssledovanyya: opysanye, obyasnenye, ponymanye sotsyalnoy realnosty [Strategy of sotsial research: description, explanation, understanding of social reality]. Moscow: Dobrosvet.

3. Barabanshchykov, B.A. (2003). Systemnaya orhanyzatsyya y razvytye psykhyky [System organization and development of the psyche]. Psykholohycheskyy zhurnal [Psychological Journal], 1, 28−38.

4. Maslow, A. (1999). Novye rubezhy chelovecheskoy pryrody [The Farther Reaches of Human Nature]. Moscow: Smysl.

5. Leontiev, D.A. (1992). Metodyka yzuchenyya tsennostnykh oryentatsyy [The method of studying value orientations]. Moscow: Vlados.

6. Yatsenko, T.S. (1987) Sotsyalno-psykholohycheskoe obuchenye v podhotovke budushchykh uchyteley [Social-psychological teaching in the training of future teachers]. Kyiv: Vyshcha shkola.

7. Bratus, B.S. (1988). Anomalyy lychnosty [Anomalies of personality]. Moscow: Mysl.

Conflict of interest:

The Author declare no conflict of interest.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Ulyana В. Mykhaylyshyn

Uzhhorod National University

Universitetskaya street, 14, , 88000 Uzhhorod, Ukraine

tel: +380506991399

e-mail: myb69@ukr.net

Received: 20.02.2019

Accepted: 01.04.2019

Figure 5. Average values of formation of purpose-life orientations of patients with alcohol dependence in comparison with average values after the test by D.A.Leontiev